The Residencia de Estudiantes opened its doors on October 1, 1910 created by the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (JAE) (Board for Advanced Studies and Scientific Research) and was inspired by the Institución Libre de Enseñanza (ILE). According to Julio Caro Baroja, the Residencia became “the first cultural center of Spain during two decades.”
The Residencia is well known as the "house" where Dalí, Lorca, and Buñuel lived and became friends, and the place where Einstein, Curie, and Le Corbusier delivered lectures. The success of the Residencia's project was the result of its understanding of education as a comprehensive and active process that encouraged the dialogue between the students and the intellectuals and artists who frequented the institution, the learning through personal experience, and the contact with nature. The unique atmosphere of the Residencia, the accomplishments of the people who were connected with it, and, above all, its the moral and intellectual project, made it one of the main nuclei for the scientific, educational and social modernization of the country between 1910 and 1936.